Seasonal Variation of Some Atmospheric Parameters in Fresh Water Swamp and Sudan Savanna areas of Nigeria


  • Francis Aweda Bowen University, Iwo
  • J. O. Agbolade Electrical and Electronic Department, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, NIGERIA
  • J.A. Oyewole Physics and Solar Energy Programme, College of Agriculture Engineering and Science, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, NIGERIA
  • M. Sanni Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Offa, Kwara State, NIGERIA


Solar radiation, Atmospheric parameters, Seasonal radiation, Sudan savanna


The year in year out variation in atmospheric parameters, solar radiation, and meteorological variables such as ambient temperature, relative humidity RH, wind speed etc, are posies that can be and are used to describe the atmospheric conditions. Ten years of data obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) was analysed. Results showed that solar radiation rises from January to get to its peak in April which is maintained till August before it begins to fall again with the Sudan savanna area (Maiduguri) having a value of (15.70 MJm-2month-1) and freshwater swamp area (Ikeja) having the value of (10.16 MJm-2month-1). The extraterrestrial radiations calculated for the two stations are 333.53(MJm-2month-1) and 195.53 (MJm-2month-1) respectively. However, the relative humidity of Ikeja (84.54%) is higher as compared to that of Maiduguri (42.23%). The minimum temperature ranges observed for the two stations varies from (22 - 24)0C and (12 - 26)0C, while the maximum temperature was as high as 330C and 400C obtained in April for Ikeja and Maiduguri, respectively. Similarly, the average wind speed is higher for Ikeja (4.97m/s) than for Maiduguri (4.62m/s). The result of the statistical correlation reveals that, in Maiduguri, solar radiation was found to have a significant negative relationship with relative humidity (r = -.256, p<0.01) and a significant positive relationship with minimum and maximum temperature (p<0.05). This means that minimum and maximum temperatures increase as solar radiation increases (p<0.05). Relative humidity decreases as solar radiation increases. In Ikeja, solar radiation was found to have a significant negative relationship with relative humidity (r =-.350, p<0.01) and wind speed (r = -146, p<0.05) and significant positive relationship with minimum temperature (r =.410, p<0.05) and maximum temperature (r =.575, p<0.01). In conclusion, the variables like relative humidity, minimum temperature and wind speed are higher in the freshwater swamp area of Nigeria as compared to the Sudan savanna area, while the solar radiation, extraterrestrial radiation and maximum temperature are generally higher in the Sudan savanna area of Nigeria.






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