• Jerome Undiandeye Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Silas Kiman Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
  • Musa Askira Abubakar Department of Chemical Engineering, Modibbo Adama University, Nigeria
  • Habiba Mohammed Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria



Anaerobic digestion, Ensiling, Kinetic study


Food waste (FW) contribute to emission of greenhouse gases as well as environmental pollution. One way of reducing the impact of FW on the environment is by using it for biofuel production. The yield of biofuel from FW can be improved if the substrate is pretreated. In this study, ensiling was used as a cost effective method of pretreating FW for biomethane production. Co-ensiling of FW and maize straw (MS) was carried out at carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N) of 20, 25, 30 and 35 for 210 days at ambient temperature. Thereafter, the biomethane potential (BMP) of the silages was determined using an automatic biomethane potential test system. Results showed that ensiling reduced both structural and non-structural carbohydrate components of the silages. BMPs of 385.58, 497.39, 520.53, 551.37, 542.16 and 517.29mL/gVS from the unensiled FW, ensiled FW without MS, co-ensiled FW at C/N ratio of 20, co-ensiled FW at C/N ratio of 25, co-ensiled FW at C/N ratio of 30 and co-ensiled FW at C/N ratio of 35 respectively were obtained. A kinetic evaluation showed that the dual pool model gave a better prediction of the experimental BMP of all substrates than the first-order model and the modified Gompertz model.


“The World Bank Nigeria: Food Smart Country Diagonistic”,; 2020, Ac-cessed 11 Apr 2023.

Baawain, M. S., Al-Mamun, A., Omidvarborna, H., et al. “Ultimate composition analysis of municipal solid waste in Muscat”, Journal of cleaner production 148, 2017, pp355–362

Gao, A., Tian, Z., Wang, Z., et al. “Comparison between the Technologies for Food Waste Treatment”, Energy Procedia 105, 2017, pp3915–3921

Chew, K. R., Leong, H. Y., Khoo, K. S., et al. “Effects of anaerobic digestion of food waste on biogas production and environmental impacts: A review”, Environmental Chemistry Letters 19(4), 2021, pp2921–2939. doi: 10.1007/s10311-021-01220-z

Xue, S., Wang, Y., Lyu, X., et al. “Interactive effects of carbohydrate, lipid, protein composition and carbon/nitrogen ratio on biogas production of different food wastes”, Bioresour Technol 312, 2020, 123566. doi: 10.1016/ rtech.2020.123566

Ma, C., Liu, J., Ye, M., et al. “Towards utmost bioenergy conversion efficiency of food waste: Pretreatment, co-digestion, and reactor type”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 90, 2018.

Rezania, S., Oryani, B., Cho, J., et al. “Different pretreatment technologies of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production: An overview”, Energy 199(1), 2020, 117457. doi: 10.1016/

Undiandeye, J., Gallegos, D., Lenz, J., et al. “Effect of Novel Aspergillus and Neurospora Species-Based Additive on Ensiling Parameters and Biomethane Potential of Sugar Beet Leaves”, Applied Sciences 12(5), 2022, doi: 10.3390/app 12052684

Valentino, F., Munarin, G., Biasiolo, M., et al. “Enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from food waste in a two-phases pilot-scale anaerobic digestion process”, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 9, 2021.

Undiandeye, J., Gallegos, D., Sträuber, H., et al. “Ensiling parameters in vertical columns and multiple kinetic models evaluation of biomethane potential of ensiled sugar beet leaves”, Biofuels 13(8), 2022, pp995–1005. doi: 10.1080/17597269.2022.2059964

Undiandeye, J., Kiman, S., Kefas, H. M., et al. “Ensiling water hyacinth for enhanced biomethane production: Effect of co-ensiling with maize straw and eggshell powder as additive”, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 98(2), 2023, 490–497. doi: 10.1002/jctb.7263

Undiandeye, J., Kiman, S., Abubakar, A. M., et al. “Medium Chain Carboxylates Production from Cassava Wastes Pretreated by Ensiling”, Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 17(2), 2023, doi: 10.1002/bbb.2485

Okoro-Shekwaga, C. K., Turnell Suruagy, M. V., Ross, A., et al. “Particle size, inoculum-to-substrate ratio and nutrient media effects on biomethane yield from food waste”, Renewable Energy 151(4), 2020, pp311–321. doi: 10.1016/j. renene.2019.11.028

Kefas, H. M., and Undiandeye, J. “Ensiling of Potato Peels Waste for Biomethane Production: An Evaluation of Kinetic Parameters. Nigerian”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 8(1), 2022, pp42–50

Weissbach, F., and Strubelt, C. “Correcting the dry matter content of grass silages as a substrate for biogas production”, Landtechnik 63(4), 2008, 210-211, 246

Van Soest, P. J., and Wine, R. H. “Use of Detergents in the Analysis of Fibrous Feeds. IV. Determination of Plant Cell-Wall Constituents”, Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 50(1), 2020, pp50–55. doi: 10.1093/jaoac/50.1.50

Hendricks, T. J., Hancock, D. W., Tucker, J. J., et al. “Ensiling alfalfa and alfalfa–bermudagrass with ferulic acid esterase-producing microbial inoculants”, Crop, Forage & Turfgrass Management 7(1), 2021, e20093. doi: 10.1002/cft2.20093

Menzel, T., Neubauer, P., and Junne, S. “Effect of bioaugmentation with Paenibacillus spp. and thin slurry recirculation on microbial hydrolysis of maize silage and bedding straw in a plug-flow reactor”, Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2023, doi: 10.1007/s13399-023-03958-8

Yang, X., Zhang, Z., Song, L., et al. “Solid-State Anaerobic Microbial Ensilage: A Combined Wet Storage and Pretreatment Method for the Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass”, Waste and Biomass Valorization 11(7), 2020, pp3381–3396. doi: 10.1007/s12649-019-00684-z

Okoye, C. O., Wang, Y., Gao, L., et al. “The performance of lactic acid bacteria in silage production: A review of modern biotechnology for silage improvement”, Microbiol Res 266, 2023, 127212. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2022.1272 12

Ai, P., Zhang, X., Ran, Y., et al. “Biomass briquetting reduces the energy loss during long-term ensiling and enhances anaerobic digestion: A case study on rice straw”, Bioresour Technol 292:121912. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.1219 12

Ingenieure, V. D. “VDI 4630: Fermentation of Organic Materials : Characterisation of the Substrate, Sampling, Collection of Material Data, Fermentation Tests”, Beuth Verlag, 2016.

Wang, J., Sun, Y., Zhang, D., et al. “Unblocking the rate-limiting step of the municipal sludge anaerobic digestion”, Water Environment Research 94(10), 2022, e10793. doi: 10.1002/wer.10793

Kabir, M. M., Forgács, G., Taherzadeh, M. J., et al. “Biogas from Wastes: Processes and Applications”, In: 2015.

Morken, J., Gjetmundsen, M., and Fjørtoft, K. “Determination of kinetic constants from the co-digestion of dairy cow slurry and municipal food waste at increasing organic loading rates”, Renewable Energy 117, 2018, pp.46–51

Shi, X., Guo, X., Zuo, J., et al. “A comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and wheat straw: Process stability and microbial community structure shifts”, Waste Manag 75, 2018, pp.261–269. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.00 4

Undiandeye, J., Achadu, A. M, Kefas, H. M. “Biomethane Potential of Cassava Leaves: Effect of co-digestion with cattle manure and Evaluation of Kinetic Parameters”, Uniport Journal of Engineering and Scientific Research 6(2), 2022, pp.213–223

Fogler, H. S. “Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering”, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, 2016.

Mähnert, P., and Linke, B. “Kinetic study of biogas production from energy crops and animal waste slurry: Effect of organic loading rate and reactor size”, Environmental Technology 30(1), 2009, pp.93–99. doi: 10.1080/095933308022466 40

Mao, C., Zhang, T., Wang, X., et al. “Process performance and methane production optimizing of anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and corn straw”, Sci Rep 7(1), 2017, 9379. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09977-6






Agricultural, Bioresources, Biomedical, Food, Environmental & Water Resources Engineering

How to Cite