• I. Elabor Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Edo State, Nigeria
  • I. O. Bakare Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo, Benin-city
  • E. U. Ikhuoria Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Edo State, Nigeria
  • F. E. Okieimen Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Edo State, Nigeria
  • A. I. Aigbodion Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 1049, Benin City 300001, Edo State, Nigeria



Rubber seed oil, Soybean oil, Alkyd resin, Coating, Characterisation, Polycondensation reactio


The polymerization and properties of environmentally friendly resin binders applicable in the surface-coating industry were studied. Rubber seed oil (RSO) and RSO blended with 10% and 20% soybean oil (SBO)-based alkyd resins were synthesized by alcoholysis-polyesterification of the oil with glycerol and phthalic anhydride.  Physicochemical properties (such as colour, specific gravity, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, and drying schedule) of the alkyd resins were determined to establish the possible industrial potential of the resins.  The saponification value and iodine value ranged from 250.19 mgKOH/g to 279.55 mgKOH/g and 29.58 gI2/100g to 33.77 gI2/100g respectively. The drying schedule and chemical resistance of the blended alkyd resins to water, salts, acids, and alkalis were also studied. The blended resins were found to be resistant to water, salt, and acid media, except for alkali media. The colour properties were enhanced as the percentage of the blend increased. FT-IR spectroscopic study of the oil and alkyd resin samples further corroborates our findings. Therefore, the potential of rubber seed oil blended with soybean oil to produce light-coloured alkyd resins could be exploited as raw materials for the Nigerian surface coating industry.

Author Biographies

  • I. O. Bakare, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Iyanomo, Benin-city

    Director Research, Production and Development

  • E. U. Ikhuoria, Department of Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Edo State, Nigeria

    Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemistry


Chiplunkar, P. P., and Pratap, A. P. “Utilization of sunflower acid oil for synthesis of alkyd resin”, Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 93, pp. 61-67, 2016.

Orozco, L. M., Cardona, S., Gomez, C., Inciarte, H., Villada, Y., and Rios, L. “Evaluation of KHSO4 as a recyclable catalyst in the production of dehydrated castor oil to be applied in alkyd resins,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 161, pp. 106467, 2021/12/01/, 2021.

Castellá, F., Pérez-Estebanez, M., Mazurek, J., Monkes, P., Learner, T., Niello, J. F., Tascon, M., and Marte, F. “A multi-analytical approach for the characterization of modern white paints used for Argentine concrete art paintings during 1940–1960”, Talanta, vol. 208, pp. 120472, 2020/02/01/, 2020.

Sharmin, E., Zafar, F., Akram, D., Alam, M., and Ahmad, S. “Recent advances in vegetable oils based environment friendly coatings: A review”, Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 76, pp. 215-229, 2015.

Wagle, P. G., Tamboli, S. S., and More, A. P. “Peelable coatings: A review”, Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 150, pp. 106005, 2021.

Paraskar, P. M., and Kulkarni, R. D. “Synthesis of Isostearic Acid/Dimer Fatty Acid-Based Polyesteramide Polyol for the Development of Green Polyurethane Coatings”, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 54-70, 2021.

Chiplunkar, P. P., Shinde, V. V., and Pratap, A. P. “Synthesis and Application of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Based Alkyd Resin in Liquid Detergent”, Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 137-149, 2017.

Äkräs, L., Vahvaselkä, M., Silvenius, F., Seppälä, J., and Ilvesniemi, H. “A multi-criteria decision-making framework and analysis of vegetable oils to produce bio-based plastics”, Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 188, pp. 115584, 2022/11/15/, 2022.

Flores, S., Flores, A., Calderon, C., and Obregon, D. “Synthesis and characterization of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil-based alkyd resin”, Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 136, pp. 105289, 2019.

Aigbodion, A., Okieimen, F., Obazee, E., and Bakare, I. “Utilisation of maleinized rubber seed oil and its alkyd resin as binders in water-borne coatings”, Progress in organic coatings, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 28-31, 2003.

Aly, K. I., Sun, J., Kuckling, D., and Younis, O. “Polyester resins based on soybean oil: synthesis and characterization”, Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 286, 2020/08/28, 2020.

Nekhavhambe, E., Mukaya, H. E., and Nkazi, D. B. “Development of castor oil–based polymers: A review”, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. e10030, 2019.

Otabor, G. O., Ifijen, I. H., Mohammed, F. U., Aigbodion, A. I., and Ikhuoria, E. U. “Alkyd resin from rubber seed oil/linseed oil blend: A comparative study of the physiochemical properties”, Heliyon, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. e01621, 2019.

Ikhuoria, E., Maliki, M., Okieimen, F., Aigbodion, A., Obaze, E., and Bakare, I. “Synthesis and characterisation of chlorinated rubber seed oil alkyd resins”, Progress in organic coatings, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 134-137, 2007.

Kurowska, K., Marks-Bielska, R., Bielski, S., Kryszk, H., and Jasinskas, A. “Food security in the context of liquid biofuels production”, Energies, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 6247, 2020.

Ifijen, I. H., Odi, H. D., Maliki, M., Omorogbe, S. O., Aigbodion, A. I., and Ikhuoria, E. U. “Correlative studies on the properties of rubber seed and soybean oil-based alkyd resins and their blends”, Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 459-467, 2021.

Bakare, I. O., Pavithran, C., Okieimen, F. E., and Pillai, C. K. S. “Polyesters from renewable resources: preparation and characterization”, Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 3748-3755, 2006.

Senra, E. M., da Silva, A. E. F. A., Visconte, L. L. Y., Silva, A. L. N., and Pacheco, E. B. A. V. “Influence of a Catalyst in Obtaining a Post-consumer Pet-Based Alkyd Resin that Meets Circular Economy Principles”, Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 3761-3778, 2022/09/01, 2022.

Naylor, R. L., and Higgins, M. M. “The rise in global biodiesel production: Implications for food security”, Global Food Security, vol. 16, pp. 75-84, 2018/03/01/, 2018.

Society, A. O. C., and Firestone, D. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS: American Oil Chemists' Society, 1998.

Peters, M. A., Alves, C. T., Wang, J., and Onwudili, J. A. “Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Fresh and Waste Cooking Oils to Fatty Acids Followed by Esterification to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: Detailed Characterization of Feedstocks and Products”, ACS omega, vol. 7, no. 50, pp. 46870-46883, 2022.

Gharby, S., Hajib, A., Ibourki, M., Nounah, I., Moudden, H. E., Elibrahimi, M., and Harhar, H. “Induced changes in olive oil subjected to various chemical refining steps: A comparative study of quality indices, fatty acids, bioactive minor components, and oxidation stability kinetic parameters”, Chemical Data Collections, vol. 33, pp. 100702, 2021.

Gunstone, F. D., Harwood, J. L., and Pardly, F. B., The Lipids – Handbook. 2nd Edn., , New York (USA): Chapman & Hall, 1994.

Okieimen, F. E., Pavithran, C., and Bakare, I. O. “Epoxidation and hydroxlation of rubber seed oil: one-pot multi-step reactions”, European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 330-336, 2005.

Mohammadi, N., Ostovar, N., and Granato, D. “Pyrus glabra seed oil as a new source of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids: Composition, thermal, and FTIR spectroscopic characterization”, LWT, vol. 181, pp. 114790, 2023/05/01/, 2023.

Rozali, N. L., Azizan, K. A., Singh, R., Syed Jaafar, S. N., Othman, A., Weckwerth, W., and Ramli, U. S. “Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy approach combined with discriminant analysis and prediction model for crude palm oil authentication of different geographical and temporal origins”, Food Control, vol. 146, pp. 109509, 2023/04/01/, 2023.

Elba, M. E., Rehim, E. M. A., and Ashery, R. E. “International Journal of Chemistry and Technology”.

Aigbodion, A., and Okieimen, F. “Kinetics of the preparation of rubber seed oil alkyds”, European Polymer Journal, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1105-1108, 1996.

Silverstein, R. M., and Webster, F. X. "Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds", 6th Edition ed., pp. 482, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1998.

Honzíček, J. “Curing of Air-Drying Paints: A Critical Review”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 58, no. 28, pp. 12485-12505, 2019/07/17, 2019.






Chemical, Industrial, Materials, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Petroleum & Production Engineering

How to Cite